Planet information is found by tapping on the name in the main screen. The Planet's information consists of the name, planet size, temperature and location. There are currently nine different types of planets, each with their own unique variables as listed below.
The name can be changed anytime to whatever. The default name is Guest(4 numbers)'s Home. Some have kept the default name as a quasi-cloak to deter any attacks.
The planet size is unknown until it is colonized.The higher the number, the more can be built. I have heard of a few who have a planet size in the 250s. No one knows until it is established by the player.
Depending on the temperature, certain resources produce more than others. For example, gas is produced more in colder temperatures. Planets closest to the Mysterious Nebula are usually the colder than others. Take that a step further, colonize a planet furthest from the top coordinates. The further down the numbers, the colder the planet.
The location is the planet's coordinates. As told repeatedly, do not give out coords in the World Chat or risk losing ships and resources by repeated attacks.
Finally there's the Give Up option. That can be used in two methods. One is to relocate to move away from a player farming your planet. The other is to spread out the planet locations to deter a complete wipe out from an attack or alliance.